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Causation A Very Short Introduction

Causation  A Very Short Introduction PDF

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Author: Stephen Mumford
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019968443X
Size: 25.49 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 128
View: 1992

Book Description: Without cause and effect, there would be no science or technology, no moral responsibility, and no system of law. Causation is therefore the most fundamental connection in the universe and a core topic of philosophical thought. This Very Short Introduction introduces all of the main theories of causation and its key debates.


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Author: Stephen Mumford
Publisher: العبيكان للنشر
ISBN: 6035038808
Size: 79.54 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Philosophy
Languages : ar
Pages : 160
View: 7453

Book Description: قد تثير السَّببيَّة قلق المُبتدِئ؛ بسبب طبيعتها النظريَّة والفنيَّة، شأنها في ذلك شأن العديد من مجالات الفلسفة، ومع أنّ الكثير من الأفكار الأساسيَّة، والمفاهيم، والأسئلة المتعلقة بالسَّببيَّة تمتاز بالبساطة، فإننا نرمي إلى شرح المسائل الرئيسة المرتبطة بها، وإذا لم نتبنَّ إحدى النظريَّات المرتبطة بالسَّببيَّة، فلن نتمكن من البحث أوالخوض في ماهيَّتها، وعليه، إذا تمكَّن أحدنا من تطوير نظريَّته السَّببيَّة وتحديثها فسيكون قادرًا على اكتشاف الأسباب، وقد يكون هذا الأمر حيويًّا، وضروريًّا؛ فعلى سبيل المثال: لا بدَّ من تحديد أسباب أمراض مُعيَّنة، لنتمكَّن من توفير الأدوية التي تسهم في الشفاء من تلك الأمراض؛ ولن يكون بمقدورنا السَّيطرة على التغيُّر المناخيِّ إلا عندما نفهم مُسبِّباته، وينبغي لنا أن نُحدِّد الأسباب جميعَها التي تؤدِّي إلى نشوب الحروب، وولادة الفقر والمعاناة، والألم، ونتجنَّبها بتوفير أسباب الاستقرار، والسَّلام، والازدهار. ولكن كيف من المُمْكن أنْ نجعل هذه الآمال، والطُموحات حقيقة على أرض الواقع إذا لم نَعِ طبيعة العَلاقة السَّببيَّة بين الأشياء؟ من يريد الحصول على الإجابة، فلا شكَّ أنَّ هذا هو الكتاب الأنسب لذلك ، ولا شكَّ في أنَّ الجميع معنيٌّ ومهتم بتلك التسؤلات. العبيكان 2016


Metaphysics A Very Short Introduction

Metaphysics  A Very Short Introduction PDF

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Author: Stephen Mumford
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199657122
Size: 78.64 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 113
View: 641

Book Description: An introduction to metaphysics offers questions and answers covering such issues as properties, changes, time, personal identity, nothingness, and consciousness.


Philosophy Of Science

Philosophy of Science PDF

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Author: Samir Okasha
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198745583
Size: 69.70 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 140
View: 4100

Book Description: How much faith should we place in what scientists tell us? Is it possible for scientific knowledge to be fully "objective?" What, really, can be defined as science? In the second edition of this Very Short Introduction, Samir Okasha explores the main themes and theories of contemporary philosophy of science, and investigates fascinating, challenging questions such as these. Starting at the very beginning, with a concise overview of the history of science, Okasha examines the nature of fundamental practices such as reasoning, causation, and explanation. Looking at scientific revolutions and the issue of scientific change, he asks whether there is a discernible pattern to the way scientific ideas change over time, and discusses realist versus anti-realist attitudes towards science. He finishes by considering science today, and the social and ethical philosophical questions surrounding modern science. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Hume A Very Short Introduction

Hume  A Very Short Introduction PDF

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Author: Alfred Ayer
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191540332
Size: 32.38 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 168
View: 5791

Book Description: Hume is one of the greatest of all British philosophers, and even in his own lifetime was celebrated as one of the pivotal figures of the Enlightenment. A central theme of his philosophy is the conviction that questions traditionally thought of as completely independent of the scientific realm–questions about the mind, about morality, and about God, for example–are actually best explained using the experimental methods characteristic of the natural sciences. Hume's 'naturalist' approach to a wide variety of philosophical topics resulted in highly original theories about perception, self-identity, causation, morality, politics, and religion, all of which are discussed in this stimulating introduction by A J Ayer, himself one of the twentieth century's most important philosophers. Ayer also gives an account of Hume's fascinating life and character, and includes generous quotations from Hume's lucid and often witty writings. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


History A Very Short Introduction

History  A Very Short Introduction PDF

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Author: John Arnold
Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks
ISBN: 019285352X
Size: 25.10 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 134
View: 3074

Book Description: Starting with an examination of how historians work, this "Very Short Introduction" aims to explore history in a general, pithy, and accessible manner, rather than to delve into specific periods.


Causation In Science And The Methods Of Scientific Discovery

Causation in Science and the Methods of Scientific Discovery PDF

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Author: Rani Lill Anjum
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0198733666
Size: 42.16 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 304
View: 150

Book Description: Causation is the main foundation upon which the possibility of science rests. Without causation, there would be no scientific understanding, explanation, prediction, nor application in new technologies. How we discover causal connections is no easy matter, however. Causation often lies hiddenfrom view and it is vital that we adopt the right methods for uncovering it. The choice of methods will inevitably reflect what one takes causation to be, making an accurate account of causation an even more pressing matter. This enquiry informs the correct norms for an empirical study of the world. In Causation in Science and the Methods of Scientific Discovery, Rani Lill Anjum and Stephen Mumford propose nine new norms of scientific discovery. A number of existing methodological and philosophical orthodoxies are challenged as they argue that progress in science is being held back by an overlysimplistic philosophy of causation.


Modern War A Very Short Introduction

Modern War  A Very Short Introduction PDF

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Author: Richard English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199607893
Size: 71.17 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 132
View: 3981

Book Description: In this accessible and authoritative Very Short Introduction, Richard English considers what modern warfare is and what it achieves. Addressing our assumptions about war in the modern period, and drawing upon direct accounts of warfare, he considers its impact on society, culture, economics, as well its future.


Medical Law A Very Short Introduction

Medical Law  A Very Short Introduction PDF

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Author: Charles Foster
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191636010
Size: 38.76 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Law
Languages : en
Pages : 144
View: 2171

Book Description: Medical law is concerned with our bodies, and what happens to them during and after our lives. When things go wrong with our bodies, we want to know what our rights are, and what governs the conduct of the clinicians into whose hands we put our lives and limbs. Dealing with matters of life and death, it can therefore have a fundamental impact on medical practice. Headlines in the media often involve the core issues of medical law - organ transplantation, abortion, withdrawal of treatment, euthanasia, confidentiality, research on humans - these are topics that affect us all. Headlines can misrepresent, however. In order to fully understand the issues and their relevance, we have to delve into the cases and into the principles behind them. In this highly readable Very Short Introduction, Charles Foster explores different examples to illustrate the key problems and principles of medical law. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Glimpse Of Light

Glimpse of Light PDF

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Author: Stephen Mumford
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 147427949X
Size: 78.83 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 192
View: 1027

Book Description: I firmly believed there was a world outside of our own minds . . . But all around me were challenges. . . . How could we be so sure there were such things existing apart from us? Philosopher Benedict Chilwell faces a crisis of confidence and hopes to resolve it in a self-imposed exile, far away in the north of Norway. From his cabin, he begins his meditations, pondering the mysteries of philosophy in the dark Arctic winter. Pride, a whale, love and lust, the Huldra, God and a chain of causes all interrupt Benedict's solitude. Could they prove his salvation? In six days approaching the return of the light, Benedict discovers a basis for certainty and tries his best to convince his hosts. Through doubts, questions and reasoning, Chilwell inadvertently follows in Descartes' footsteps. Will he be killed by the cold too; or will the warmth of Plato's sun save him in time?