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Causation A Very Short Introduction

Causation  A Very Short Introduction PDF

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Author: Stephen Mumford
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019968443X
Size: 80.97 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 128
View: 6475

Book Description: Without cause and effect, there would be no science or technology, no moral responsibility, and no system of law. Causation is therefore the most fundamental connection in the universe and a core topic of philosophical thought. This Very Short Introduction introduces all of the main theories of causation and its key debates.


Causation In Science And The Methods Of Scientific Discovery

Causation in Science and the Methods of Scientific Discovery PDF

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Author: Rani Lill Anjum
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0198733666
Size: 61.22 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 304
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Book Description: Causation is the main foundation upon which the possibility of science rests. Without causation, there would be no scientific understanding, explanation, prediction, nor application in new technologies. How we discover causal connections is no easy matter, however. Causation often lies hiddenfrom view and it is vital that we adopt the right methods for uncovering it. The choice of methods will inevitably reflect what one takes causation to be, making an accurate account of causation an even more pressing matter. This enquiry informs the correct norms for an empirical study of the world. In Causation in Science and the Methods of Scientific Discovery, Rani Lill Anjum and Stephen Mumford propose nine new norms of scientific discovery. A number of existing methodological and philosophical orthodoxies are challenged as they argue that progress in science is being held back by an overlysimplistic philosophy of causation.


Metaphysics A Very Short Introduction

Metaphysics  A Very Short Introduction PDF

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Author: Stephen Mumford
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199657122
Size: 54.15 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 113
View: 1033

Book Description: An introduction to metaphysics offers questions and answers covering such issues as properties, changes, time, personal identity, nothingness, and consciousness.


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Author: Stephen Mumford
Publisher: العبيكان للنشر
ISBN: 6035038808
Size: 11.83 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Philosophy
Languages : ar
Pages : 160
View: 6194

Book Description: قد تثير السَّببيَّة قلق المُبتدِئ؛ بسبب طبيعتها النظريَّة والفنيَّة، شأنها في ذلك شأن العديد من مجالات الفلسفة، ومع أنّ الكثير من الأفكار الأساسيَّة، والمفاهيم، والأسئلة المتعلقة بالسَّببيَّة تمتاز بالبساطة، فإننا نرمي إلى شرح المسائل الرئيسة المرتبطة بها، وإذا لم نتبنَّ إحدى النظريَّات المرتبطة بالسَّببيَّة، فلن نتمكن من البحث أوالخوض في ماهيَّتها، وعليه، إذا تمكَّن أحدنا من تطوير نظريَّته السَّببيَّة وتحديثها فسيكون قادرًا على اكتشاف الأسباب، وقد يكون هذا الأمر حيويًّا، وضروريًّا؛ فعلى سبيل المثال: لا بدَّ من تحديد أسباب أمراض مُعيَّنة، لنتمكَّن من توفير الأدوية التي تسهم في الشفاء من تلك الأمراض؛ ولن يكون بمقدورنا السَّيطرة على التغيُّر المناخيِّ إلا عندما نفهم مُسبِّباته، وينبغي لنا أن نُحدِّد الأسباب جميعَها التي تؤدِّي إلى نشوب الحروب، وولادة الفقر والمعاناة، والألم، ونتجنَّبها بتوفير أسباب الاستقرار، والسَّلام، والازدهار. ولكن كيف من المُمْكن أنْ نجعل هذه الآمال، والطُموحات حقيقة على أرض الواقع إذا لم نَعِ طبيعة العَلاقة السَّببيَّة بين الأشياء؟ من يريد الحصول على الإجابة، فلا شكَّ أنَّ هذا هو الكتاب الأنسب لذلك ، ولا شكَّ في أنَّ الجميع معنيٌّ ومهتم بتلك التسؤلات. العبيكان 2016


Philosophy Of Science

Philosophy of Science PDF

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Author: Samir Okasha
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198745583
Size: 33.66 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 140
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Book Description: How much faith should we place in what scientists tell us? Is it possible for scientific knowledge to be fully "objective?" What, really, can be defined as science? In the second edition of this Very Short Introduction, Samir Okasha explores the main themes and theories of contemporary philosophy of science, and investigates fascinating, challenging questions such as these. Starting at the very beginning, with a concise overview of the history of science, Okasha examines the nature of fundamental practices such as reasoning, causation, and explanation. Looking at scientific revolutions and the issue of scientific change, he asks whether there is a discernible pattern to the way scientific ideas change over time, and discusses realist versus anti-realist attitudes towards science. He finishes by considering science today, and the social and ethical philosophical questions surrounding modern science. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


French Philosophy A Very Short Introduction

French Philosophy  a Very Short Introduction PDF

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Author: Stephen Gaukroger
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0198829175
Size: 73.54 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 152
View: 2835

Book Description: French culture is unique in that philosophy has played a significant role from the early-modern period onwards, intimately associated with political, religious, and literary debates, as well as with epistemological and scientific ones. While Latin was the language of learning there was a universal philosophical literature, but with the rise of vernacular literatures things changed and a distinctive national form of philosophy arose in France. This Very Short Introduction covers French philosophy from its origins in the sixteenth century up to the present, analysing it within its social, political, and cultural context. Beginning with psychology and epistemology, Stephen Gaukroger and Knox Peden then move onto the emergence of radical philosophy in the eighteenth century, before considering post-revolutionary philosophy in the nineteenth century, philosophy in the world wars, the radical thought of the 1960s, and finally French philosophy today. Throughout, they explore the dilemma sustained by the markedly national conception of French philosophy, and its history of speaking out on matters of universal concern. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Hume A Very Short Introduction

Hume  A Very Short Introduction PDF

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Author: Alfred Ayer
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191606537
Size: 20.75 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 144
View: 6874

Book Description: Hume is one of the greatest of all British philosophers, and even in his own lifetime was celebrated as one of the pivotal figures of the Enlightenment. A central theme of his philosophy is the conviction that questions traditionally thought of as completely independent of the scientific realm–questions about the mind, about morality, and about God, for example–are actually best explained using the experimental methods characteristic of the natural sciences. Hume's 'naturalist' approach to a wide variety of philosophical topics resulted in highly original theories about perception, self-identity, causation, morality, politics, and religion, all of which are discussed in this stimulating introduction by A J Ayer, himself one of the twentieth century's most important philosophers. Ayer also gives an account of Hume's fascinating life and character, and includes generous quotations from Hume's lucid and often witty writings. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Modern War A Very Short Introduction

Modern War  A Very Short Introduction PDF

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Author: Richard English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199607893
Size: 19.54 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 132
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Book Description: In this accessible and authoritative Very Short Introduction, Richard English considers what modern warfare is and what it achieves. Addressing our assumptions about war in the modern period, and drawing upon direct accounts of warfare, he considers its impact on society, culture, economics, as well its future.


The U S Civil War A Very Short Introduction

The U  S  Civil War  a Very Short Introduction PDF

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Author: Louis P. Masur
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0197513662
Size: 79.45 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 152
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Book Description: More than one hundred and fifty years after the Civil War began, its hold on the American imagination has not abated. This Very Short Introduction offers a concise history of the era and serves as a necessary introduction to dramatic events that fundamentally reshaped the nation.


The U S Supreme Court A Very Short Introduction

The U  S  Supreme Court  a Very Short Introduction PDF

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Author: Linda Greenhouse
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0190079819
Size: 41.91 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 160
View: 3915

Book Description: For 30 years, Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Linda Greenhouse chronicled the activities of the U.S. Supreme Court and its justices as a correspondent for the New York Times. In this Very Short Introduction, she draws on her deep knowledge of the court's history and of its written and unwritten rules to show readers how the Supreme Court really works. Greenhouse offers a fascinating institutional biography of a place and its people--men and women who exercise great power but whose names and faces are unrecognized by many Americans and whose work often appears cloaked in mystery. How do cases get to the Supreme Court? How do the justices go about deciding them? What special role does the chief justice play? What do the law clerks do? How does the court relate to the other branches of government? Greenhouse answers these questions by depicting the justices as they confront deep constitutional issues or wrestle with the meaning of confusing federal statutes. Throughout, the author examines many individual Supreme Court cases to illustrate points under discussion, ranging from Marbury v. Madison, the seminal case which established judicial review, to the recent District of Columbia v. Heller (2008), which struck down the District of Columbia's gun-control statute and which was, surprisingly, the first time in its history that the Court issued an authoritative interpretation of the Second Amendment. To add perspective, Greenhouse also compares the Court to foreign courts, revealing interesting differences. For instance, no other country in the world has chosen to bestow life tenure on its judges. The second edition of Greenhouse's Very Short Introduction tracks the changes in the Court's makeup over the last eight years, considers the landmark decisions of the Obama and Trump eras, and reexamines the precarious fates of such precedents as Roe v. Wade. A superb overview packed with telling details, this volume offers a matchless introduction to one of the pillars of American government.


History A Very Short Introduction

History  A Very Short Introduction PDF

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Author: John Arnold
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191606375
Size: 79.35 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 160
View: 1758

Book Description: There are many stories we can tell about the past, and we are not, perhaps, as free as we might imagine in our choice of which stories to tell, or where those stories end. John Arnold's Very Short Introduction is a stimulating essay about how we study and understand history. The book begins by inviting us to think about various questions provoked by our investigation of history, and explores the ways these questions have been answered in the past. Concepts such as causation, interpretation, and periodization, are introduced by means of concrete examples of how historians work, giving the reader a sense of the excitement of discovering not only the past, but also ourselves. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.