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Lng Liquefied Natural Gas

LNG   liquefied natural gas PDF

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Author: Bendict Uhlig
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783943813036
Size: 32.39 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category :
Languages : de
Pages : 99
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Book Description:


Design And Construction Of Lng Storage Tanks

Design and Construction of LNG Storage Tanks PDF

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Author: Josef Rötzer
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3433032777
Size: 63.64 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 138
View: 4344

Book Description: Worldwide, the use of natural gas as a primary energy source will remain vital for decades to come. This applies to industrialized, emerging countries and developing countries. Owing to the low level of impurities, natural gas is considered to be a climate-friendly fossil fuel because of the low CO2 emissions, but is at the same time an affordable source of energy. In order to enable transport over long distances and oceans (and hence create an economic and political alternative to pipelines) , the gas is liquefied, which is accompanied by a considerable reduction in volume, and then transported by ship. Thus, at international ports, many LNG tanks are required for temporary storage and further use. The trend towards smaller liquefaction and regasification plants with associated storage tanks for marine fuel applications has attracted new players in this market who often do not yet have the necessary experience and technical expertise. It is not sufficient to refer to all existing technical standards when defining consistent state-of-the-art specifications and requirements. The switch to European standardisation has made it necessary to revise and adapt existing national codes to match European standards. Technical committees at national and international level have begun their work of updating and completing the EN 14620 series. In the USA, too, the corresponding regulations are also being updated. The revision of American Concrete Institute standard ACI 376 Requirements for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures for the Containment of Refrigerated Liquefied Gases, first published in 2011, will be completed in the spring of 2019, and the final version, published in autumn 2019. This book provides an overview of the state of the art in the design and construction of liquefied natural gas (LNG) tanks. Since the topic is very extensive and complex, an introduction to all aspects is provided, e.g. requirements and design for operating conditions, thermal design, hydrostatic and pneumatic tests, soil surveys and permissible settlement, modelling of and calculations for the concrete structure, and the actions due to fire, explosion and impact. Dynamic analysis and the theory of sloshing liquid are also presented.


Lng Risk Based Safety

LNG Risk Based Safety PDF

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Author: John L. Woodward
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470590225
Size: 12.65 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 392
View: 1333

Book Description: The expert, all-inclusive guide on LNG risk based safety Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is the condensed form of natural gas achieved by cryogenic chilling. This process reduces gas to a liquid 600 times smaller in volume than it is in its original state, making it suitable for economical global transportation. LNG has been traded internationally and used with a good safety record since the 1960s. However, with some accidents occurring with the storage and liquefaction of LNG, a good understanding of its mechanisms, and its potential ramifications to facilities and to the nearby public, is becoming critically important. With an unbiased eye, this book leans on the expertise of its authors and LNG professionals worldwide to examine these serious safety issues, while addressing many false assumptions surrounding this volatile energy source. LNG Risk Based Safety: Summarizes the findings of the Governmental Accountability Office's (GAO) survey of nineteen LNG experts from across North America and Europe Reviews the history of LNG technology developments Systematically reviews the various consequences from LNG releases— discharge, evaporation, dispersion, fire, and other impacts, and identifies best current approaches to model possible consequence zones Includes discussion of case studies and LNG-related accidents over the past fifty years Covering every aspect of this controversial topic, LNG Risk Based Safety informs the reader with firm conclusions based on highly credible investigation, and offers practical recommendations that researchers and developers can apply to reduce hazards and extend LNG technology.


Handbook Of Liquefied Natural Gas

Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas PDF

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Author: Saeid Mokhatab
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
ISBN: 0124046452
Size: 70.66 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 624
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Book Description: Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a commercially attractive phase of the commodity that facilitates the efficient handling and transportation of natural gas around the world. The LNG industry, using technologies proven over decades of development, continues to expand its markets, diversify its supply chains and increase its share of the global natural gas trade. The Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas is a timely book as the industry is currently developing new large sources of supply and the technologies have evolved in recent years to enable offshore infrastructure to develop and handle resources in more remote and harsher environments. It is the only book of its kind, covering the many aspects of the LNG supply chain from liquefaction to regasification by addressing the LNG industries’ fundamentals and markets, as well as detailed engineering and design principles. A unique, well-documented, and forward-thinking work, this reference book provides an ideal platform for scientists, engineers, and other professionals involved in the LNG industry to gain a better understanding of the key basic and advanced topics relevant to LNG projects in operation and/or in planning and development. Highlights the developments in the natural gas liquefaction industries and the challenges in meeting environmental regulations Provides guidelines in utilizing the full potential of LNG assets Offers advices on LNG plant design and operation based on proven practices and design experience Emphasizes technology selection and innovation with focus on a “fit-for-purpose design Updates code and regulation, safety, and security requirements for LNG applications


Wie Klimafreundlich Ist Lng

Wie klimafreundlich ist LNG  PDF

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Author: Jakob Wachsmuth
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 69.77 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category :
Languages : de
Pages :
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Book Description: In dieser Kurzstudie erfolgt eine Einordnung der THG-Emissionen entlang der Prozesskette für den Import von ⁠LNG⁠ auf Basis einer Literaturstudie. Andere Umwelteffekte konnten nicht betrachtet werden. In Abhängigkeit der Förderländer treten unterschiedliche Vorkettenemissionen auf. Bei der unkonventionellen Förderung von Gas, zum Beispiel aus den USA, variieren die Vorkettenemissionen stark und unterliegen hohen Unsicherheiten. Die Gesamtemissionen von LNG sind in der Regel geringer als die von erdöl- und kohlebasierten Energieträgern. Dennoch ist aus Klimaschutzsicht derzeit die Nutzung von leitungsgebunden transportiertem Gas gegenüber LNG zu bevorzugen. Aus klimapolitischer Sicht und unter Energieeffizienzaspekten ist ein verstärkter Einsatz von LNG insbesondere im Vergleich zu per Pipeline transportiertem Gas nicht begründbar. Zur Diversifizierung der Exportländer insbesondere hinsichtlich eines zukünftigen Marktes für strombasierte erneuerbare Gase, verbesserter Versorgungssicherheit sowie mehr Wettbewerb kann ein Ausbau der LNG-Infrastruktur im Zuge der Energiewende hingegen beitragen.


Energy For The 21st Century

Energy for the 21st Century PDF

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Author: Susan L. Sakmar
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1781005885
Size: 42.86 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 512
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Book Description: ÔProfessor SakmarÕs book is a must-read for anyone interested in gaining a better understanding of the most dynamic segment of the global energy industry.Õ Ð Jay Copan, Executive Director, LNG 17 ÔProfessor SakmarÕs book provides a well-rounded overview of the global role that natural gas is expected to play in the future and the important role of LNG as a means of transporting gas to where it is needed. Readers will find the book to be a very convenient compendium of relevant global information and an important educational, informational resource.Õ Ð Ronald D. Ripple, Director, Centre for Research in Energy and Minerals Economics, Curtin University, Australia ÔUnderstanding global energy markets Ð what forces shape them and what trends define them Ð is critical for any professional trying to evaluate new energy developments and technological directions. Susan SakmarÕs impressive ability to provide this context in terms of LNG markets makes her book valuable.Õ Ð Warren R. True, Sr., Chief Technology Editor, Oil & Gas Journal ÔWith clear and direct text, supplemented with key maps, charts and graphics from government, industry and other sources, the book moves the reader smoothly through the early history of LNG up to current developments, including shale gas and North American LNG exports. The book is a valuable resource for anyone interested in understanding global gas markets and the energy policy challenges facing us in the 21st century.Õ Ð Jacqueline L. Weaver, A.A. White Professor of Law, University of Houston Law Center, US Countries around the world are increasingly looking to liquefied natural gas (LNG) Ð natural gas that has been cooled until it forms a transportable liquid Ð to meet growing energy demand. Energy for the 21st Century provides critical insights into the opportunities and challenges LNG faces, including its potential role in a carbon-constrained world. This comprehensive study covers topics such as the LNG value chain, the historical background and evolution of global LNG markets, trading and contracts, and an analysis of the various legal, policy, safety and environmental issues pertaining to this important fuel. Additionally, the author discusses emerging issues and technologies that may impact global LNG markets, such as the development of shale gas, the prospects of North American LNG exports, the potential role of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum and floating LNG. The author contextualizes the discussion about the importance of LNG with an analysis of why the 21st century will be the Ôgolden ageÕ of natural gas. Accessible and non-technical in nature, this timely book will serve as an essential reference for practitioners, scholars and anyone else interested in 21st century energy solutions.


Understanding The Conflicting Views On Liquefied Natural Gas Lng Development Projects And Operations

Understanding the Conflicting Views on Liquefied Natural Gas  LNG  Development Projects and Operations PDF

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Author: Anthony Banyouko Ndah
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3668798699
Size: 53.14 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 29
View: 5082

Book Description: Essay from the year 2012 in the subject Energy Sciences, grade: NA, Universiti Brunei Darussalam (FASS), language: English, abstract: LNG development is currently amongst the most controversial projects around the world, strongly contested by opponents, generally consisting of environmental activists in communities where LNG operations are planned or on-going, who usually go to great lengths to present to dissuade governments from approving LNG projects, contrary to the views of LNG proponents. Because these conflicting views on the benefits and negative impacts of LNG continue to animate the debate, this paper is intended to examine salient issues of the debate for and against LNG, based on the views of both proponents and critics. The aim is to identify the major sources of the conflicting reactions and perceptions and propose sustainable solutions for a mutually beneficial and peaceful cohabitation of LNG with the biophysical and social environmental concerns of stakeholder communities. Two [You have listed three points.] important points have been established: - That critics of LNG have been vital drivers of innovation in the LNG sector, forcing LNG developers to continuously thrive to design new environmentally friendly technologies. - That EIA, an invaluable component of all major projects has evolved greatly in the spatial sense, since its introduction in the USA in the 1960s, but its content and methods have changed little over this time. Thus it still dwells strictly on bio-physical and economic considerations, with limited emphasis on social impacts. This is based on the illusion that money can compensate for all other consequences, and especially true of the cases of LNG projects presented here. In most cases the social impacts considered have been limited to such aspects as employment, health, safety, livelihoods, leaving out important cultural, spiritual, relational, emotional or psychological issues; an ominous omission. This paper concludes that by adopting the guidelines and principles for Social Impact Assessment (SIA), improving techniques of SIA and the inclusion of all major local stakeholders in all stages of LNG projects from planning to implementation (effective stakeholder participation) the rift between LNG development and community resistance could be significantly narrowed.