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The Lost Elements

The Lost Elements PDF

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Author: Marco Fontani
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199383340
Size: 12.32 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 531
View: 4387

Book Description: In the mid-nineteenth century, chemists came to the conclusion that elements should be organized by their atomic weights. However, the atomic weights of various elements were calculated erroneously, and chemists also observed some anomalies in the properties of other elements. Over time, it became clear that the periodic table as currently comprised contained gaps, missing elements that had yet to be discovered. A rush to discover these missing pieces followed, and a seemingly endless amount of elemental discoveries were proclaimed and brought into laboratories. It wasn't until the discovery of the atomic number in 1913 that chemists were able to begin making sense of what did and what did not belong on the periodic table, but even then, the discovery of radioactivity convoluted the definition of an element further. Throughout its formation, the periodic table has seen false entries, good-faith errors, retractions, and dead ends; in fact, there have been more elemental discoveries" that have proven false than there are current elements on the table. The Lost Elements: The Shadow Side of Discovery collects the most notable of these instances, stretching from the nineteenth century to the present. The book tells the story of how scientists have come to understand elements, by discussing the failed theories and false discoveries that shaped the path of scientific progress. Chapters range from early chemists' stubborn refusal to disregard alchemy as legitimate practice, to the effects of the atomic number on discovery, to the switch in influence from chemists to physicists, as elements began to be artificially created in the twentieth century. Along the way, Fontani, Costa, and Orna introduce us to the key figures in the development of the periodic table as we know it. And we learn, in the end, that this development was shaped by errors and gaffs as much as by correct assumptions and scientific conclusions."

Nikki Tesla And The Traitors Of The Lost Spark Elements Of Genius 3

Nikki Tesla and the Traitors of the Lost Spark  Elements of Genius  3  PDF

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Author: Jess Keating
Publisher: Scholastic Inc.
ISBN: 1338633473
Size: 27.75 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Juvenile Fiction
Languages : en
Pages : 288
View: 483

Book Description: Ocean's 11 meets Spy School in this hilarious illustrated middle-grade adventure series featuring the world's greatest tween geniuses.

The Lost Ethnographies

The Lost Ethnographies PDF

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Author: Robin James Smith
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
ISBN: 1787147738
Size: 52.82 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 192
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Book Description: This volume explores ethnographic projects that were planned but never happened, and reports on the methodological lessons researchers can learn, as well as how they can gain fresh energy and social science insight from apparent rejection.

Power Composition For Photography

Power Composition for Photography PDF

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Author: Tom Gallovich
Publisher: Amherst Media
ISBN: 1608958485
Size: 62.90 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Photography
Languages : en
Pages : 128
View: 2505

Book Description: In this book, Tom Gallovich shows readers how to use their camera’s exposure controls (aperture, shutter speed, ISO) to establish the focal point of the image and create the overall mood of the shot and choose a particular lens or focal-length setting to massage the way elements in the original scene will appear within the frame. Next, he presents chapters on using shape, color, lines, and arrangement to strengthen the intended visual message. Readers will learn how to best place their primary subject (and in some cases secondary subject) for maximum impact and will discover artistic strategies that reinforce that decision through careful use of color, tone, highlight and shadow, leading lines, curved shapes, and relative size—qualities that will contribute to the overall mood in the image. Copious illustrations emphasize the impact that putting these concepts into play will have on your images—and these are often coupled with images that show how ineffective images are when those important compositional needs are not attended to.

Rigor And Structure

Rigor and Structure PDF

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Author: John P. Burgess
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 019103360X
Size: 64.58 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 224
View: 5363

Book Description: While we are commonly told that the distinctive method of mathematics is rigorous proof, and that the special topic of mathematics is abstract structure, there has been no agreement among mathematicians, logicians, or philosophers as to just what either of these assertions means. John P. Burgess clarifies the nature of mathematical rigor and of mathematical structure, and above all of the relation between the two, taking into account some of the latest developments in mathematics, including the rise of experimental mathematics on the one hand and computerized formal proofs on the other hand. The main theses of Rigor and Structure are that the features of mathematical practice that a large group of philosophers of mathematics, the structuralists, have attributed to the peculiar nature of mathematical objects are better explained in a different way, as artefacts of the manner in which the ancient ideal of rigor is realized in modern mathematics. Notably, the mathematician must be very careful in deriving new results from the previous literature, but may remain largely indifferent to just how the results in the previous literature were obtained from first principles. Indeed, the working mathematician may remain largely indifferent to just what the first principles are supposed to be, and whether they are set-theoretic or category-theoretic or something else. Along the way to these conclusions, a great many historical developments in mathematics, philosophy, and logic are surveyed. Yet very little in the way of background knowledge on the part of the reader is presupposed.

Die Ordnung Der Dinge

Die Ordnung der Dinge PDF

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Author: Sam Kean
Publisher: Hoffmann und Campe
ISBN: 3455850030
Size: 52.13 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Psychology
Languages : de
Pages : 448
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Book Description: Woraus besteht die Welt, woraus Mikroben, Meere, der Mensch? Kean gelingt etwas Schönes: Man kapiert’s auch ohne dröge Formeln. Das Hauptgebäude der modernen Chemie, das Periodensystem der Elemente, sieht langweilig aus, doch in ihm verbergen sich spannende Geschichten über Alchimisten, Entdecker und Goldgräber, Medizinalräte und Quacksalber, Kriegsstrategen, Spione, Geschäftemacher und Spinner. So macht Naturwissenschaft Spaß! Das periodische System der Elemente ist nicht nur eine große wissenschaftliche Leistung, sondern auch eine Schatzkiste voller skurriler Episoden, die von Leidenschaft, Abenteuern, Betrug und Besessenheit handeln. Während Kean die Grundbausteine des Universums und die Ordnung, die sie schaffen, erklärt, erzählt er zugleich, welche Rolle sie vom Urknall bis heute gespielt haben. Wie etwa Gerhard Domagk das Leben seiner Tochter riskierte, um die ersten Antibiotika zu entwickeln. Wie Portugal sowohl den Nazis als auch den Alliierten zu astronomischen Preisen Wolfram lieferte, weil beide Seiten es dringend für den Krieg brauchten.

The Heaviest Metals

The Heaviest Metals PDF

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Author: William J. Evans
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119304121
Size: 43.39 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 544
View: 1977

Book Description: An authoritative survey of the science and advanced technological uses of the actinide and transactinide metals The Heaviest Metals offers an essential resource that covers the fundamentals of the chemical and physical properties of the heaviest metals as well as the most recent advances in their science and technology. The authors – noted experts in the field – offer an authoritative review of the actinide and transactinide elements, i.e., the elements from actinium to lawrencium as well as rutherfordium through organesson, the current end of the periodic table, element 118. The text explores the history of the metals, their occurrence and issues of production, and covers a broad range of chemical subjects including environmental concerns and remediation approaches. The authors also offer information on the most recent and emerging applications of the metals, such as in superconducting materials, catalysis, and research into medical diagnostics. This important resource: Provides an overview of the science and advanced technological uses of the actinide and transactinide metals Describes the basic chemical and physical properties of the heaviest metals, and discusses the challenges and opportunities for their technological applications Contains accessible information on the fundamental features of the heaviest metals, special requirements for their experimental study, and the critical role of computational characterization of their compounds Highlights the most current and emerging applications in areas such as superconducting materials, catalysis, nuclear forensics, and medicine Presents vital contemporary issues of the heaviest metals Written for graduate students and researchers working with the actinide and transactinide elements, industrial and academic inorganic and nuclear chemists, and engineers, The Heaviest Metals is a comprehensive volume that explores the fundamental chemistry and properties of the heaviest metals, and the challenges and opportunities associated with their present and emerging technological uses.

The Herald Of Light

The Herald of Light PDF

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Size: 75.27 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : New Jerusalem Church
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 2431

Book Description: