International trade and the Armenian merchants in the Seventeenth century
by Vahan Baibourtian
This book examines the thriving trade relations of the Armenian merchants with numerous countries since the late Medieval Ages, focusing on the early modern period of that era.
Armenian Merchants of the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries
by East India Company
Merchants, Companies and Trade
by Sushil Chaudhury, Michel Morineau
Written by well-known scholars, this book raises pertinent questions and takes up alternate perspectives on the growth and development of international trade between Europe and Asia, especially India, in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries. Through a comparative and comprehensive study of merchant communities, markets and commodities the individual authors argue, contrary to conventional views, that Asian merchants were in no way inferior to Europeans in terms of their commercial operations and business acumen. The book emphasizes the continuing and growing importance of India’s overland trade, even in the seventeenth to eighteenth centuries, traces the little-known world of Armenian merchants, the hitherto obscure, but voluminous, Indian trade with the Ottoman Empire, and by unearthing new evidence, demonstrates that the export activity of Asian merchants through the overland route from Bengal was higher, in fact, than the combined total of European exports.
Russia’s Foreign Trade and Economic Expansion in the Seventeenth Century
by J. T. Kotilaine
This study is the first comprehensive assessment of Russia’s commercial relations with the outside world in the seventeenth century and of the relationship between trade and economic growth. Based on exhaustive research in some thirty archival repositories, it represents the first systematic quantification of commodity flows across the range of Russia’s trade partners. The book reveals late Muscovy to have been an increasingly open economy, experiencing remarkable commercial expansion driven in large part by its interaction with the outside world. It fundamentally debunks the notion of pre-Petrine Russia as a closed and stagnant, essentially mediaeval, society and established a clear link between seventeenth-century economic policy and Russia’s subsequent rise to become one of the great powers of the world.
From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean
by Sebouh David Aslanian
Drawing on a rich trove of documents, including correspondence not seen for 300 years, this study explores the emergence and growth of a remarkable global trade network operated by Armenian silk merchants from a small outpost in the Persian Empire. Based in New Julfa, Isfahan, in what is now Iran, these merchants operated a network of commercial settlements that stretched from London and Amsterdam to Manila and Acapulco. The New Julfan Armenians were the only Eurasian community that was able to operate simultaneously and successfully in all the major empires of the early modern world—both land-based Asian empires and the emerging sea-borne empires—astonishingly without the benefits of an imperial network and state that accompanied and facilitated European mercantile expansion during the same period. This book brings to light for the first time the trans-imperial cosmopolitan world of the New Julfans. Among other topics, it explores the effects of long distance trade on the organization of community life, the ethos of trust and cooperation that existed among merchants, and the importance of information networks and communication in the operation of early modern mercantile communities.
Medieval Armenian Manuscripts at the University of California, Los Angeles
by Avedis Krikor Sanjian, University of California, Los Angeles. Library. Department of Special Collections, Alice Taylor, Sylvie L. Merian, S. Peter Cowe
This catalog contains detailed descriptions of ninety-one items in the Armenian Manuscript Collection in the Department of Special Collections at the University Research Library of the University of California, Los Angeles. Acquired by the library in 1968 from Dr. Garo Owen Minasian, the collection includes manuscripts of ecclesiastical character as well as theological and philosophical works, medical treatises, and anthologies of poetry.
Merchant Colonies in the Early Modern Period
by Victor N Zakharov, Gelina Harlaftis, Olga Katsiardi-Hering
Merchant colonies were a significant factor for economic growth in Europe during the early modern period. The essays in this collection look at merchant colonies across Europe, assessing their function, legal status, interaction with local traders and assimilation into their host countries.
by Mary Jo Maynes, Ann Waltner
People have always lived in families, but what that means has varied dramatically across time and cultures. The family is not a “natural” phenomenon but an institution with a dynamic history stretching 10,000 years into the past. Mary Jo Maynes and Ann Waltner tell the story of this fundamental unit from the beginnings of domestication and human settlement. They consider the codification of rules governing marriage in societies around the ancient world, the changing conceptions of family wrought by the heightened pace of colonialism and globalization in the modern world, and how state policies shape families today. The authors illustrate ways in which differences in gender and generation have affected family relations over the millennia. Cooperation between family members–by birth or marriage–has driven expansions of power and fusions of culture in times and places as different as ancient Mesopotamia, where kings’ daughters became priestesses who mediated among the various cultures and religions of their fathers’ kingdom, and sixteenth-century Mexico, in which alliances between Spanish men and indigenous women variously allowed for consolidation of colonial power or empowered resistance to colonial rule. But family discord has also driven – and been driven by – historical events such as China’s 1919 May Fourth Movement, in which young people seeking an end to patriarchal authority were key participants. Maynes’s and Waltner’s view of the family as a force of history brings to light processes of human development and patterns of social life and allows for new insights into the human past and present.
Religion and Trade
by Francesca Trivellato, Leor Halevi, Catia Antunes
Although trade connects distant people and regions, bringing cultures closer together through the exchange of material goods and ideas, it has not always led to unity and harmony. From the era of the Crusades to the dawn of colonialism, exploitation and violence characterized many trading ventures, which required vessels and convoys to overcome tremendous technological obstacles and merchants to grapple with strange customs and manners in a foreign environment. Yet despite all odds, experienced traders and licensed brokers, as well as ordinary people, travelers, pilgrims, missionaries, and interlopers across the globe, concocted ways of bartering, securing credit, and establishing relationships with people who did not speak their language, wore different garb, and worshipped other gods. Religion and Trade: Cross-Cultural Exchanges in World History, 1000-1900 focuses on trade across religious boundaries around the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during the second millennium. Written by an international team of scholars, the essays in this volume examine a wide range of commercial exchanges, from first encounters between strangers from different continents to everyday transactions between merchants who lived in the same city yet belonged to diverse groups. In order to broach the intriguing yet surprisingly neglected subject of how the relationship between trade and religion developed historically, the authors consider a number of interrelated questions: When and where was religion invoked explicitly as part of commercial policies? How did religious norms affect the everyday conduct of trade? Why did economic imperatives, political goals, and legal institutions help sustain commercial exchanges across religious barriers in different times and places? When did trade between religious groups give way to more tolerant views of “the other” and when, by contrast, did it coexist with hostile images of those decried as “infidels”? Exploring captivating examples from across the world and spanning the course of the second millennium, this groundbreaking volume sheds light on the political, economic, and juridical underpinnings of cross-cultural trade as it emerged or developed at various times and places, and reflects on the cultural and religious significance of the passage of strange persons and exotic objects across the many frontiers that separated humankind in medieval and early modern times.
Merchants, Mamluks, and Murder
by Thabit Abdullah
Using the case of the murder of a Jewish merchant in 1791 as the backdrop to this study of Ottoman Basra’s long-distance trade in the eighteenth century, Thabit A. J. Abdullah takes a novel comparative approach to Middle Eastern and Indian Ocean historiography. He examines three broad interrelated issues, all of which have a direct bearing on the case of the Jewish merchant. First, the overall nature of Basra’s trade is examined; second, the book looks at the city’s large wholesale merchants, the tujjar; and the third issue deals with the gradual development in Basra of the "soft areas" in Asian economies through which European articulation, followed by incorporation into the capitalist world economy, took place.